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SUERF Policy Notes

In September 2015, SUERF launched the SUERF Policy Notes series with focus on current financial, monetary or economic issues, designed for policy makers and financial practitioners, authored by renowned experts.
 


Date publishedSUERFIssueTitleAuthor(s)
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 255Navigating by r*: safe or hazardous?Claudio Borio
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 180Sovereign CDS Volatility as an Indicator of Economic UncertaintyMaximilian Böck, Martin Feldkircher, Burkhard Raunig
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 178Contagious ZombiesChristian Bittner, Falko Fecht, Co-Pierre Georg
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 254Fiscal-Monetary Crosswinds in the Euro AreaLucrezia Reichlin, Giovanni Ricco, Matthieu Tarbé
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 253Raising r*: Why, how, and if not now, when?Robert Holzmann, Maria T. Valderrama
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 252Forging the Future of Monetary Union – taking stock and looking forwardMarkus Rodlauer, Rolf Strauch
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 176Does the ECB’s monetary policy react to the balance of risks?Philippine Cour-Thimann, Alexander Jung
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 174Low-for-ultra-long policy will not be enough for JapanHiroshi Ugai
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 172Central banks as bank supervisors: how does this double role affect their inflation outcomes?Vasco Gabriel, Ioannis Lazopoulos, Diana Lima
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 162The Natural Interest Rate in ChinaSUN Guofeng, Daniel M Rees
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 157Covid-19 and Capital Flows: The Responses of Investors to the Responses of GovernmentsStefan Goldbach, Volker Nitsch
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 156More aware societies suffered less from Covid-19Alejandro Buesa, Javier J. Pérez, Daniel Santabárbara
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 153What’s the Message? Interpreting Monetary Policy Through Central Bankers’ SpeechesMartin Feldkircher, Paul Hofmarcher, Pierre Siklos
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 152Patchy data is a good start: from Kuznets and Clark to supervisors and climateFrank Elderson
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 149Regulation of crypto-assets is a must for governments and central banksDaniel Daianu
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 251Green Liquidity Moves MainstreamPatrick Drury Byrne, Sandeep Chana and Sylvain Broyer
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 250Roads for the future: Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) and Innovative PaymentsFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 145It’s in the Tails: The Distributional Income Effects of Monetary PolicyNiklas Amberg, Thomas Jansson, Mathias Klein and Anna Rogantini Picco
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 137Euro area equity risk premia and monetary policyDaniel Kapp, Kristian Loft Kristiansen
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 136What does “below, but close to, two per cent” mean? Assessing the ECB’s reaction function with real time dataMaritta Paloviita, Markus Haavio, Pirkka Jalasjoki, Juha Kilponen
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 133Evidence of a macroeconomic reversal ratePaul Konietschke, Anna Samarina, Irina Stanga, Jan Willem van den End
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 131Investment funds, monetary policy, and the global financial cycleChristoph Kaufmann
Jul 2021Policy NoteNo 249Gender, women economic concerns and monetary policy decision-makingSylvie Goulard
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 126Intergenerational macroeconomicsGabriel Makhlouf
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 125Monetary policy surprises trigger different responses in the housing market across European regionsWinfried Koeniger, Benedikt Lennartz, Marc-Antoine Ramelet
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 119Six ways to bring inflation (expectations) upErnest Gnan
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 118The reduction in homeownership rates for the youngGonzalo Paz-Pardo
Jun 2021Policy NoteNo 247Not alone: Financial support of the Western BalkansMauro Giorgio Marrano
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 111A rising core lifts all basketsBruce Kasman, Joseph Lupton, Michael S Hanson
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 108Can central bank communication help to stabilise inflation expectations?Alexander Jung, Patrick Kuehl
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 105Monetary policy space and monetary policy strategies for the euro areaMarkus Haavio, Olli-Matti Laine
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 102Assessing the impact of Basel III: Evidence from macroeconomic modelsOlivier de Bandt, Bora Durdu, Hibiki Ichiue, Yasin Mimir, Jolan Mohimont, Kalin Nikolov, Sigrid Röhrs, Jean-Guillaume Sahuc, Valerio Scalone, Michael Straughan
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 101The interplay between green policy, electricity prices, financial constraints and jobs: firm-level evidenceGert Bijnens, John Hutchinson, Jozef Konings, Arthur Saint Guilhem
May 2021Policy BriefNo 94Climate risks and collateral: a methodological experimentPierre-François Weber, Bünyamin Erkan, Antoine Oustry, Romain Svartzman
May 2021Policy NoteNo 240What Caused The Resurgence In FDI Screening?Simon J. Evenett
May 2021Policy NoteNo 239How to prevent a too restrictive fiscal policy in Europe?Wim Boonstra
May 2021Policy NoteNo 238Monetary and Fiscal Policy: Privileged powers, entwined responsibilitiesClaudio Borio and Piti Disyatat
May 2021Policy NoteNo 237Will consumers save the EU recovery? - Insights from the Commission’s consumer surveyRoberta Friz, Fiona Morice
May 2021Policy BriefNo 88Strengthening the international role of the euroGergely Hudecz, Gong Cheng, Edmund Moshammer, Alexander Raabe
May 2021Policy BriefNo 87Banking regulation and the benefits of international cooperation – views from a banking supervisorJoachim Wuermeling
May 2021Policy NoteNo 236Europe’s growth gap: reconciling Keynes and SchumpeterFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
May 2021Policy BriefNo 86The Bewildering Effects of COVID-19 and Other Recessions on Forecast Accuracy MeasurementsBoriss Siliverstovs
May 2021Policy NoteNo 235Negative Interest Rate Policy – The Experience So FarLuis Brandao Marques, Marco Casiraghi, Gaston Gelos, Gunes Kamber, Roland Meeks
May 2021Policy NoteNo 234Building-back-better after the Covid-19 crisis in Europe: The twin transition and divergenceMarco Buti, István P. Székely
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 82The banking supervisors dilemma: wearing many hats on one headSasin Kirakul, Jeffery Yong, Raihan Zamil
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 81How the Capital Markets Union can help Europe avoid a liquidity trapSylvain Broyer
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 80Fed’s financial stability concerns and monetary policyKlodiana Istrefi, Florens Odendahl, Giulia Sestieri
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 72Uncertainty Is Not an Excuse. Integrating Climate Risks into Monetary Policy Operations and Financial SupervisionJulia Anna Bingler, Chiara Colesanti Senni, Pierre Monnin
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 69Crisis management of credit institutions: Senior unsecured creditors must prepare for bail-inChristine Sif Larsen, Anne Dyrberg Rommer
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 68Banking union - achievements and challengesLuis de Guindos
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 231The challenges to the banking sector a year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemicPablo Hernández de Cos
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 66Unconventional monetary policies and expectations on economic variablesAlessio Anzuini, Luca Rossi
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 63The role of fiscal policies in the Covid-19 crisis: scope and limitationsNiels Thygesen
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 61A backstop liquidity facility for a greener economyEric Jondeau, Benoit Mojon, Cyril Monnet
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 59Whatever it takes to save the planet? Central banks and unconventional green policyAlessandro Ferrari, Valerio Nispi Landi
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 55Debt cancellation by the ECB: Does it make a difference?Paul de Grauwe
Mar 2021Policy NoteNo 226Greening the UK financial system – a fit for purpose approachYannis Dafermos, Daniela Gabor, Maria Nikolaidi, Frank van Lerven
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 52Pandemic Recession, Recovery Plan and Helicopter Money: A Tale from the SerenissimaCharles Goodhart, Donato Masciandaro, Stefano Ugolini
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 48Crisis management for medium-sized banks: the case for a European approachAndrea Enria
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 46The crisis management framework for banks in the EU: what can be done with small and medium-sized banks?Elke König
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 45The crisis management framework for banks in the EU: how Can we deal with small and medium-sized banks?Ignazio Visco
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 221The future of data collection & data management: Agile RegOps for digitalizing the regulatory value chainMartina Drvar, Johannes Turner, Maciej Piechocki, Eric Stiegeler, Daniel Münch
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 220Is the 100% Reserve Reform Finally Getting Topical?Christian Pfister
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 217The post-COVID-19 recovery: what challenges and roadmap for the banking industry?Jordi Gual
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 213COVID-19 pandemic: Perception, confusion and conspiraciesStefan Schneider
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 215Consequences for banks’ business from COVID-19 and policy responsesFrancesco Mazzaferro
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 214Is NGEU a game changer for the ECB’s role in fighting the fall-out from COVID-19 in the euro area?Lukas Reiss, Maria Teresa Valderrama
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 212Monetary policy effects when interest rates are negativeJoost Bats, Massimo Giuliodori, Aerdt Houben
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 211Preparing for a higher inflation regimeElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Philipp Hildebrand
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 36A stronger voice for Europe in global developmentWerner Hoyer
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 37In Support of Monetary Policy: Using the Countercyclical Capital Buffer to Avoid a Reversal Interest RateMatthieu Darracq Pariès, Christoffer Kok, Matthias Rottner
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 205Retail CBDC Remuneration: The Sign MattersChristian Pfister
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 204Lessons from the Swedish anti-corona strategyLieven Noppe
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 203Tracking Covid: What Worked?Markus Guetschow
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 202Policy revolutionElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Stanley Fischer, Philipp Hildebrand
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 201Central banks’ response to the “tragedy on the horizon”François Villeroy de Galhau
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 200Finding the Right “Hall of Mirrors”: The Mixed Blessings of Lessons from the Past for Shaping a Post-COVID FutureRobert Holzmann
Oct 2020Policy BriefNo 32More travel warnings are almost like a new lockdown for the hospitality industryEric Heymann
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 198The shadow of fiscal dominance: Misconceptions, perceptions and perspectivesIsabel Schnabel
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 197The Great Demographic Reversal: Ageing Societies, Waning Inequality, and an Inflation RevivalC.A.E. Goodhart, Manoj Pradhan
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 196The Eurosystem collateral framework in 2018 and 2019Marco Corsi, Benjamin Hartung, Viktoriya Gocheva
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 195The EU’s “Northern enlargement” 25 years on – stocktaking and some thoughts for the futureErnest Gnan and Robert Holzmann
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 29A Journey through the Monetary Cyber WorldChristian Pfister
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 27To each crisis its analogy, to each analogy its critical reflectionRobert Holzmann
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 26Global value chains and the challenge of Covid-19Antoine Berthou, Juan Carluccio, Guillaume Gaulier
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 192A rule-based monetary strategy for the European Central Bank: a call for monetary stabilityJuan E. Castañeda
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 193Inclusive payments for the post-pandemic worldRaphael Auer, Jon Frost, Thomas Lammer, Tara Rice, Amber Wadsworth
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 190Finland and monetary policy through three crisesTuomas Välimäki and Meri Obstbaum
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 189Financial integration in the Nordic-Baltic region vis-à-vis the EU: A Swedish perspectiveDavid Farelius, Stefan Ingves, Magnus Jonsson
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 24The big debt surgeRalph Solveen
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 23Eurozone in times of Covid-19: Debt monetisation by stealthPeter Vanden Houte
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 22Radical UncertaintyJohn Kay
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 185The Macroeconomic Impact of NPLs in Euro Area CountriesIvan Huljak, Reiner Martin, Diego Moccero, Cosimo Pancaro
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 18The liquidity trap, monetary policy and the health crisisStéphane Lhuissier
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 178Covalization: Europe on the Rack Between Globalization and Covid - A Historian’s Perspective on the European Union: Europe and GlobalizationHarold James
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 176Credit Guarantees in the COVID-19 crisis – Relevance and Economic ImpactJulien Brault, Simone Signore
Jun 2020Policy BriefNo 14Do contactless cards really change the way we pay?Martin Brown, Nicole Hentschel, Hannes Mettler, Helmut Stix
May 2020Policy BriefNo 12An ECB digital currency – a flight of fancy?Yves Mersch
May 2020Policy BriefNo 11Simulating the distributive effects of the Macron-Merkel Recovery FundFriedrich Heinemann
May 2020Policy NoteNo 170International inflation co-movementsPhilip R. Lane
May 2020Policy NoteNo 169Making banking integration work for better risk sharing in the eurozone: the role of cross-border banking consolidationMathias Hoffmann
May 2020Policy BriefNo 10German Constitutional Court vs ECB: Law, Economics and PoliticsDonato Masciandaro
May 2020Policy BriefNo 9ECB needs to finance Corona budget deficitsPaul De Grauwe
May 2020Policy NoteNo 166Turning collective savings into private equity investments: The Covid-19 crisis as a catalyst for pan-European efficient resource allocationGeorges Hübner
May 2020Policy NoteNo 164Can we compare the COVID-19 and 2008 crises?Marc-Olivier Strauss-Kahn
May 2020Policy NoteNo 163Coronavirus and the world of workMonika Kiss
May 2020Policy BriefNo 7Covid-19 policy response and the role of the EIBDebora Revoltella
May 2020Policy BriefNo 5An EU Recovery Fund: How to square the circle?Kajus Hagelstam, Alice Zoppè, Cristina Sofia Dias
May 2020Policy NoteNo 161Shh, don’t say it! ECB Helicopter Money: Economics and PoliticsDonato Masciandaro
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 159Embedded supervision: how to build regulation into Libra 2.0 and the token economyRaphael Auer
Apr 2020Policy BriefNo 2Politics and Economics of Global CurrenciesPaul De Grauwe
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 156Navigation tools in the semi-normal corona eraAndy Langenkamp
Apr 2020Policy BriefNo 1Regulation, Corporate Culture and Individual Responsibility in BankingDavid T Llewellyn
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 150How deep will it fall? Comparing the euro area recessions of 2020 and 2009Andreas Breitenfellner, Paul Ramskogler
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 149A diverse monetary union creates invisible transfers that justify conditional solidarityEnrico Perotti and Oscar Soons
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 148Reflections on the health and financial crisisJacques de Larosière
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 147Does It Fit? Tweeting on Monetary Policy and Central Bank CommunicationDonato Masciandaro, Davide Romelli, Gaia Rubera
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 146The European Deposit Insurance Scheme: Economic Rationale, Issues and Policy SolutionsEttore Panetti
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 144Euro Area Economics: Putting the OOH into HICPJacob Nell, Bruna Skarica, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 143Central Bank Digital Currency: A PrimerChristian Pfister
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 142Are Standard Macro and Credit Policies Enough to Deal with the Economic Fallout from a Global Pandemic? A Proposal for a Negative SME TaxThomas Drechsel, Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 141Reforms, Reversals and the Road Ahead: Lessons from Three Decades of Transition in Central and Eastern EuropeBeata Javorcik
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 138Euro Area Economics: Greenflation?Jacob Nell, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 137R-star decline and monetary hysteresisPhurichai Rungcharoenkitkul
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 132The European Banking UnionMargarita Delgado
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 131Populism, Economic Policies and Central Banking: an OverviewErnest Gnan, Donato Masciandaro
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 130European Banking Consolidation: Can a view to the past inform current policy efforts?Peter Hahn
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 127Europe’s role in the global financial systemLuis de Guindos
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 126Bank resolution, the need to recognize reality in order to prepare for the next crisisJesper Berg, Henrik Bjerre-Nielsen
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 125Should central banks also be supervisors: a political economy perspectiveDonato Masciandaro
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 121The quest for policy scope: Implications for monetary policy strategiesKlaas Knot
Dec 2019Policy NoteNo 118Deposit facility rate, bank reserves, and portfolio reallocation incentivesManuel Buchholz, Kirsten Schmidt, Lena Tonzer
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 117Euro Area Fiscal Policy: The Factual, the Possible and the SurprisingDaniele Antonucci
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 112Inflation In The Eurozone Is Dead. Long Live (The Right Kind Of) InflationSylvain Broyer
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 111Reforming the Stability and Growth Pact: Striving for sustainability while offering room for manoeuvreKarsten Wendorff
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 110Towards a European Governance Framework for CryptoassetsJason Grant Allen, Rosa María Lastra
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 109The rise of central banks as sovereign debt holders: Implications for investor basesAlvise Lennkh, Bernhard Bartels, Thibault Vasse
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 107Tackling non-performing loans in EuropePeter Grasmann, Markus Aspegren, Nicolas Willems
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 105Dealing with the next downturn: From unconventional monetary policy to unprecedented policy coordination Elga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Stanley Fischer, Philipp Hildebrand
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 104On Crypto AssetsAndrei Kirilenko
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 103Non-banks in the EU: ensuring a smooth transition to a Capital Markets UnionFatima Pires
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 101Central bank digital currency: institutional issuesWim Boonstra
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 99The euro’s global role: past, present and futureArnaud Mehl
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 97Strengthened EU fiscal framework: fiscal discipline versus economic stabilizationBernhard Grossmann, Gottfried Haber
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 94Escaping the Trap: Secular Stagnation, Monetary Policy and Financial FragilityMartin Wolf
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 93European Economic and Monetary Union: from the Past into the FutureJean-Claude Trichet
Aug 2019Policy NoteNo 89Central banks still run money creationDaniel Daianu
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 87Loan portfolio diversification in the euro area, capital requirements, and the European Banking UnionEsa Jokivuolle, Matti Virén
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 85Libra: A new competitor among international currencies?Beat Weber
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 83Global economic governance at a crossroadsCarlo Monticelli
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 76Chinese foreign investment: a dangerous obsession or a new normal? Get ready for the latter!Peter Havlik
May 2019Policy NoteNo 72Analysing the Economics of BREXIT and World TradeDavid T. Llewellyn
May 2019Policy NoteNo 71Rethinking the Trade-offs for Monetary Policy in an Era of GlobalizationEnrique Martínez-García
May 2019Policy NoteNo 70The impact of Brexit on growth and the public financesIain Begg
May 2019Policy NoteNo 69The post-crisis Phillips Curve and its policy implications: cumulative wage gap matters for inflationLiviu Voinea
Apr 2019Policy NoteNo 67What is „Modern Money Theory“ (MMT)?Beat Weber
Mar 2019Policy NoteNo 59New Frontiers in the Euro Debate in IcelandThorsteinn Thorgeirsson
Jan 2019Policy NoteNo 52Monetary Policy beyond normalizationMaria Demertzis
Nov 2018Policy NoteNo 48Trends and Cycles in Financial IntermediationPhilip R. Lane
Oct 2018Policy NoteNo 45A plea for a paradigm shift in financial decision-making in the age of climate change and disruptive technologiesAngela Köppl, Sigrid Stagl
Oct 2018Policy NoteNo 44A Financial Union for the Euro AreaPoul M. Thomsen
Sep 2018Policy NoteNo 41Central banks should reflect climate risks in monetary policy operationsPierre Monnin
Aug 2018Policy NoteNo 4021st century cash: Central banking, technological innovation and digital currenciesFabio Panetta
Jun 2018Policy NoteNo 37A solid common landing ground for EMUJeroen Dijsselbloem
May 2018Policy NoteNo 34Modern financial repression in the euro area crisis: making high public debt sustainable?Ad van Riet
May 2018Policy NoteNo 33Populism and Central Bank IndependenceDonato Masciandaro, Francesco Passarelli
Apr 2018Policy NoteNo 30In the euro area, discipline is of the essence, but risk-sharing is no less importantDaniel Daianu
Mar 2018Policy NoteNo 28Credit conditions and corporate investment in EuropeLaurent Maurin, Rozalia Pal, Philipp-Bastian Brutscher
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 25The New Silk Road: Implications for EuropeStephan Barisitz, Alice Radzyner
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 23The occasional importance of the current account in an era of a global savings glutJesper Berg, Steffen Lind
Dec 2017Policy NoteNo 22Deepening the Economic and Monetary Union: the EU priorities by 2025 and beyondMarco Buti
Nov 2017Policy NoteNo 21Risk sharing in EMU: key insights from a literature reviewDemosthenes Ioannou, David Schäfer
Nov 2017Policy NoteNo 20Recent developments in Chinese shadow bankingMichael Chui, Christian Upper
Oct 2017Policy NoteNo 19Is cash back? Assessing the recent increase in cash demandClemens Jobst, Helmut Stix
Dec 2016Policy NoteNo 9Two turbulent centuries: Lessons from Austria’s monetary policy, 1816-2016Ernest Gnan, Clemens Jobst
Nov 2016Policy NoteNo 8Doves, Hawks and Pigeons: Behavioral Monetary Policy MakingDonato Masciandaro
May 2016Policy NoteNo 6Bank secrecy in offshore centres, capital flows and blacklisting: It takes two to tangoDonato Masciandaro
Apr 2016Policy NoteNo 5Some seeming paradoxes or interesting points of Russia’s economy and banking sectorStephan Barisitz
Feb 2016Policy NoteNo 4Gender diversity and monetary policyDonato Masciandaro, Paola Profeta, Davide Romelli
Dec 2015Policy NoteNo 3Cash without future? Future without cash? A wider viewChristian Beer, Urs W. Birchler, Ernest Gnan
Sep 2015Policy NoteNo 1What is money and who says so?Peter R. Fisher

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