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SUERF Policy Notes and SUERF Policy Briefs

SUERF Policy Notes & Briefs offer accessible and concise, high-quality, authoritative and informed analysis on topical issues related to European money and finance. They make research by SUERF Member institutions and academic researchers available to the SUERF network and beyond. SUERF Policy Notes & Briefs are published weekly on the SUERF webpage. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the institution(s) the author(s) is/are affiliated with.

To submit your findings to the SUERF Policy Note and Brief series please contact suerf@oenb.at.

All SUERF Policy Notes & Briefs  are available in PDF format.

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Date publishedSUERFIssueTitleAuthor(s)
Jun 2023Policy BriefNo 601What are the short-to-medium-term effects of extreme weather on the Croatian economy?Tihana Škrinjarić
Jun 2023Policy BriefNo 600Navigating the Tightrope: Balancing Financial Stability and Inflation in the Age of Persistent Financial Cycles and CrisesThore Kockerols, Erling Motzfeldt Kravik, Yasin Mimir
May 2023Policy BriefNo 592Debt-for-nature swaps: a two-fold solution for environmental and debt sustainability in developing countries?Quentin Paul, Romain Svartzman, Pierre-François Weber
May 2023Policy BriefNo 591What to expect after “effortless” debt reduction in the euro area?Matthias Reith
May 2023Policy BriefNo 588The digital euro: a precautionary device, not a deus-ex-machinaIgnazio Angeloni
May 2023Policy BriefNo 582Critical metals for the low-carbon transition: macro-financial issuesStéphane Dees, Simon Dikau, Hugh Miller, Romain Svartzman
Apr 2023Policy BriefNo 571Has the euro changeover really caused extra inflation in Croatia?Matteo Falagiarda, Christine Gartner, Ivan Mužić, Andreja Pufnik
Apr 2023Policy NoteNo 309The Digital Euro (CBDC) as a Monetary Anchor of the Financial SystemPeter Bofinger, Thomas Haas
Apr 2023Policy BriefNo 564The Stability and Growth Pact three decades laterJuhana Hukkinen, Matti Viren
Apr 2023Policy NoteNo 308Supply mattersAndrew Bailey
Mar 2023Policy BriefNo 543How shocks to Chinese supply chains affect US and euro area manufacturingMakram Khalil, Marc-Daniel Weber
Mar 2023Policy BriefNo 539When policies get in the way of profit shifting to tax havensJoana Garcia
Mar 2023Policy BriefNo 538How does offshoring shape labour market imperfections? A comparative analysis of Belgian and Dutch firmsSabien Dobbelaere, Catherine Fuss, Mark Vancauteren
Mar 2023Policy BriefNo 534Modeling Semiconductor Export Restrictions and the US-China Trade ConflictMichael Funke, Adrian Wende
Feb 2023Policy NoteNo 301Consistent economic policies: a prerequisite for macroeconomic stabilityPablo Hernández de Cos
Feb 2023Policy BriefNo 529The effects of monetary policy across fiscal regimesRoben Kloosterman, Dennis Bonam, Koen van der Veer
Feb 2023Policy BriefNo 524Highly Dispersed inflation rates challenge the ECB’s monetary policy strategyThomas Url
Feb 2023Policy NoteNo 300Geopolitical scenarios for 2023 and beyondFranz Eder
Feb 2023Policy BriefNo 518ECB Significant-Bank Risk Profile and COVID-19 Crisis Containment Phase: What Approach in the Transitioning Phase?Bozena Gulija, Costanza Russo, Dalvinder Singh
Feb 2023Policy BriefNo 517Stock Return Predictability: Comparing Macro- and Micro-ApproachesArthur Stalla-Bourdillon
Feb 2023Policy NoteNo 299Convergence in GDP per capita in the euro area and the EU at the time of COVID-19Mirko Licchetta, Giovanni Mattozz
Feb 2023Policy NoteNo 297Risk reduction vs risk sharing: A sticking point in the ongoing review of the EU fiscal framework?Martin Larch, Matthias Busse, Mateja Gabrijelcic, Laszlo Jankovics, Janis Malzubris
Jan 2023Policy BriefNo 511Eurozone Government Bond Spreads: A Tale of Different ECB Policy RegimesSylvester C W Eijffinger, Mary Pieterse-Bloem
Jan 2023Policy BriefNo 510Bank and non-bank balance sheet responses to monetary policy shocksFédéric Holm-Hadulla, Falk Mazelis, Sebastian Rast
Jan 2023Policy BriefNo 509EU fiscal rules 2.0, more carrot than stick plus greenwashing?Matthias Reith, Gunter Deuber
Jan 2023Policy NoteNo 296Finding the right mix: monetary-fiscal interaction at times of high inflationIsabel Schnabel
Jan 2023Policy BriefNo 499Invest One -- Get Two Extra: Public Investment Crowds In Private InvestmentOlegs Matvejevs, Olegs Tkacev
Dec 2022Policy BriefNo 494Introducing Green Bank Equity to fund the low-carbon transitionAaron Janowski
Dec 2022Policy BriefNo 484Monetary and macroprudential policy effectiveness and spilloversLuc Laeven, Angela Maddaloni, Caterina Mendicino
Dec 2022Policy BriefNo 481Should central banks be involved in historical research?Ivo Maes
Nov 2022Policy BriefNo 475Do stablecoins alter the monetary policy transmission mechanism?Pietro Cova, Alessandro Notarpietro, Patrizio Pagano, Massimiliano Pisani
Nov 2022Policy BriefNo 473The Impact of Natural Disasters on Banks’ Impairment Flow – Evidence from GermanyIliriana Shala, Benno Schumacher
Nov 2022Policy BriefNo 469The safe asset potential of EU-issued bondsTilman Bletzinger, William Greif, Bernd Schwaab
Nov 2022Policy BriefNo 467A tale of three crises: synergies between ECB tasksKarin Hobelsberger, Christoffer Kok, Francesco Paolo Mongelli
Nov 2022Policy NoteNo 292The complex task of reforming the EU’s electricity market - Intervention options proposed by the European CommissionCristian Stet, Pablo Ruiz, Susan Hansen
Nov 2022Policy BriefNo 458Immigrants and the distribution of income and wealth in the euro areaMaarten Dossche, Aleksandra Kolndrekaj, Maximilian Propst, Javier Ramos Perez, Jiri Slacalek
Oct 2022Policy BriefNo 454Augmented credit-to-GDP gap as a more reliable indicator for macroprudential policy decision-makingTihana Škrinjarić
Oct 2022Policy BriefNo 444How do central bank lending operations interact with equity offering announcements?Massimo Giuliodori, Jan Kakes, Dimitris Mokas
Oct 2022Policy NoteNo 291Monetary policy and inflation: recent developmentsIgnazio Visco
Sep 2022Policy NoteNo 290Seven Trends That Will Shape European Power Purchase Agreements’ Path To GrowthCristian Stet
Sep 2022Policy BriefNo 423Country biases in equity portfolios are less pronounced and less irrational than one might thinkMartijn Boermans, Ian Cooper, Piet Sercu, Rosanne Vanpée
Sep 2022Policy BriefNo 416The rise of cross-border financial centresPamela Pogliani, Philip Wooldridge
Sep 2022Policy BriefNo 413The EU gas savings plan ahead of a long winterMarco Protopapa
Sep 2022Policy BriefNo 411Subjective Expectations and UncertaintyAndrzej Kocięcki, Tomasz Łyziak, Ewa Stanisławska
Sep 2022Policy BriefNo 410 Should we trust the credit decisions provided by machine learning models?Andrés Alonso, José Manuel Carbó
Aug 2022Policy NoteNo 285From SEPA to the digital euro: payments past, present and futureJohannes Asel, Simone Mingione, Petia Niederlaender, Georg Nitsche
Aug 2022Policy BriefNo 406Sustainable finance data for central banks: a new Irving Fisher Committee survey Merve Artman, Pierre Bui Quang, Nadia Esham, Nur Izzati, Leah Kling, David Nefzi, Romana Peronaci, Christine Schlitzer, Christian Schmieder, Ömer Kayhan Seyhun, Bruno Tissot, Elena Triebskorn, Huiming Yang
Aug 2022Policy BriefNo 400Regulatory complexity, uncertainty, and systemic risk Maurizio Trapanese
Aug 2022Policy BriefNo 399The effects of internationally coordinated carbon pricing on the economy and welfareAnne Ernst, Natascha Hinterlang, Alexander Mahle, Nikolai Stähler
Aug 2022Policy BriefNo 393Stagflation in the 1970s: lessons for the current situationAlmira Enders, Sebastian Giesen, Dominic Quint
Aug 2022Policy BriefNo 389Digital Endowments and Comparative AdvantageDario Guarascio, Roman Stöllinger
Jul 2022Policy BriefNo 371How household savings in CESEE are related to the past and the futureMelanie Koch, Thomas Scheiber
Jul 2022Policy BriefNo 370Too little too late: ECB’s normalisation path was model- rather than data-drivenDaniel Gros, Farzaneh Shamsfakhr
Jul 2022Policy BriefNo 366Firm-level expectations and macroeconomic conditions: underpinnings and disagreementMonique Reid, Pierre Siklos
Jun 2022Policy BriefNo 354A Coasian Bargain: Climate Financing to Phase Out CoalTobias Adrian, Patrick Bolton, Alissa M. Kleinnijenhuis
Jun 2022Policy BriefNo 353How Bad Can Financial Crises Be? A GDP Tail Risk Assessment for PortugalIvan De Lorenzo Buratta, Marina Feliciano, Duarte Maia
Jun 2022Policy BriefNo 350The currency channel of global bank leverage: a boost to fund-raising capacityJustine Pedrono
Jun 2022Policy NoteNo 281CBDC and Bank Intermediation in the Euro AreaRamón Adalid, Álvaro Álvarez-Blázquez, Katrin Assenmacher, et al.
Jun 2022Policy BriefNo 347Sectoral exchange rate pass-through in the euro areaChiara Osbat, Yiqiao Sun, Martin Wagner
Jun 2022Policy BriefNo 341Economic adjustment in the euro area and the United States during the COVID-19 crisisMirko Licchetta, Giovanni Mattozzi, Rafal Raciborski, Rupert Willis
Jun 2022Policy NoteNo 280Should the ECB consider issuing its own securities?Wim Boonstra, Bas van Geffen
May 2022Policy BriefNo 340Optimal Timing of Policy Interventions in Troubled BanksPhilipp König, Paul Mayer, David Pothier
May 2022Policy BriefNo 339Does own wealth and wealth of others matter for life satisfaction?Antje Jantsch, Julia Le Blanc,Tobias Schmidt
May 2022Policy BriefNo 335Macroeconomic Implications and Differences of Oil and Gas Price ShocksThomas Zörner, Nico Petz
May 2022Policy NoteNo 277What business model for the Digital Euro? Lessons from Brazil and SwitzerlandPeter Bofinger, Thomas Haas
May 2022Policy NoteNo 276More than an intellectual game: Exploring the monetary policy and financial stability implications of central bank digital currenciesFabio Panetta
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 321Would a retail CBDC achieve its intended purpose?Romain Baeriswyl, Samuel Reynard, Alexandre Swoboda
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 316Robert Triffin and the search for Asian Monetary UnionIvo Maes, Ilaria Pasotti
Apr 2022Policy NoteNo 273The return of inflationAgustín Carstens
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 305Is There Financial Exclusion when Official Lenders Are Considered?María Bru Muñoz
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 272Financing Faster Growth For Europe’s SMEsSylvain Broyer, Sarah Limbach, Cihan Duran
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 271Financial stability and crypto-assetsPablo Hernández de Cos
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 301Is the ECB applying lessons from the past?Anselm Küsters
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 299When domestic and foreign QE overlapPaola Di Casola, Pär Stockhammar
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 295How do Asian central banks use big data? Insights from an Irving Fisher Committee surveyGiulio Cornelli, Sebastian Doerr, Leonardo Gambacorta, Bruno Tissot
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 292The role of systemic risk spillovers in the transmission of Euro Area monetary policyAlexandros Skouralis
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 291The Political Economy of Currency UnionsKai Arvai
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 268Crisis-tested Europe – Solidarity with Ukraine spurs European identityHeinz Handler
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 267Towards a single operational indicator in the SGP – A look at the properties of the current expenditure benchmarkNicholai Benalal, Maximilian Freier, Wim Melyn, Stefan Van Parys, Lukas Reiss
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 278The Political Phillips Curve in the Euro Area: Parliamentary Voice on ECB Monetary PolicyFederico M. Ferrara, Donato Masciandaro, Manuela Moschella, Davide Romelli
Feb 2022Policy NoteNo 265Austrian conceptions of money and the rise of digital currencyMichael Peneder
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 272Global models for a global pandemic: the impact of COVID-19 on small euro area economiesPablo Garcia, Pascal Jacquinot, Črt Lenarčič, Matija Lozej, Kostas Mavromatis
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 267Pledge or pretext? Lessons from the Fiscal CompactMartin Larch, Matthias Busse, László Jankovics
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 265Has the Impact of the ECB’s Asset Purchases Diminished Over Time?Andrejs Zlobins
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 257Why do households save?Sami Oinonen, Matti Viren
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 255Climate actions and macro-financial stability: The role of central banksFrancesca Diluiso, Barbara Annicchiarico, Matthias Kalkuhl, Jan. C. Minx
Jan 2022Policy NoteNo 263Monetary Policy in a World of Radical UncertaintyMervyn King
Jan 2022Policy NoteNo 262The encrypted threat: Bitcoin’s social cost and regulatory responsesUlrich Bindseil, Patrick Papsdorf, Jürgen Schaaf
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 248Africa and COVID-19: Can the financial sector stay on course for a green and digital future?Debora Revoltella, Claudio Cali, Barbara Marchitto, Nina Fenton, Ricardo Santos
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 235Does one (unconventional) size fit all? Effects of the ECB’s unconventional monetary policies on the euro area economiesMaria Sole Pagliari
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 234Optimism is bad for fiscal outcomesMartin Larch, Janis Malzubris, Matthias Busse
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 221External Costs of Freight Transport – Relevance and Implications of Internalisation at the European LevelElisabeth Christen, Bettina Meinhart, Franz Sinabell, Gerhard Streicher
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 220Consumption and service sector key factors in the COVID-19 trade collapseHeli Simola
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 215Monetary policy strategies in the New Normal: A model-based analysis for the euro areaFabio Busetti, Stefano Neri, Alessandro Notarpietro, Massimiliano Pisani
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 209The one trillion euro CBDC: Issuing a digital euro without disrupting the bank lending channelPaolo Fegatelli
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 201Basel III implementation in the European UnionPablo Hernández de Cos
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 194The impact of COVID-19 on analysts’ sentiment about the banking sectorAlicia Aguilar, Diego Torres
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 193The effect of Eurosystem asset purchase programmes on euro area sovereign bond yields during the COVID-19 pandemicGeorge Hondroyiannis, Dimitrios Papaoikonomou
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 189How do real and monetary integrations affect inflation dynamics in Turkey?Hülya Saygılı
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 187Can policy boost the international role of currencies? Lessons from international trade invoicingGeorgios Georgiadis, Helena Le Mezo, Arnaud Mehl, Cédric Tille
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 183Central bank’s financial result and inter-sectoral transfers of benefitsKrzysztof Kruszewski, Mikołaj Szadkowski
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 182The FX Global CodeGuy Debelle
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 181A liquidity risk early warning indicator for Italian banks: a machine learning approachMaria Ludovica Drudi, Stefano Nobili
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 179The relevance of trade policy: Evidence from the 19th centuryJacopo Timini
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 252Forging the Future of Monetary Union – taking stock and looking forwardMarkus Rodlauer, Rolf Strauch
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 176Does the ECB’s monetary policy react to the balance of risks?Philippine Cour-Thimann, Alexander Jung
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 174Low-for-ultra-long policy will not be enough for JapanHiroshi Ugai
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 173An export supply channel of exchange ratesErik Frohm
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 166Record global FX reserves after COVID shockMichael S Hanson
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 160Have scale effects on cost margins of pension fund investment portfolios disappeared?Jacob A. Bikker, Jeroen J. Meringa
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 158Bank pricing of corporate loansMárcio Mateus, Tiago Pinheiro
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 156More aware societies suffered less from Covid-19Alejandro Buesa, Javier J. Pérez, Daniel Santabárbara
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 151No country is an island: International cooperation and climate changeMassimo Ferrari, Maria Sole Pagliari
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 150Digital euro has potential in the NetherlandsMichiel Bijlsma, Carin van der Cruijsen, Nicole Jonker and Jelmer Reijerink
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 149Regulation of crypto-assets is a must for governments and central banksDaniel Daianu
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 251Green Liquidity Moves MainstreamPatrick Drury Byrne, Sandeep Chana and Sylvain Broyer
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 146Digital payments and European sovereigntyBurkhard Balz
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 250Roads for the future: Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) and Innovative PaymentsFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 142Consumption patterns in Italy during COVID-19Elisa Guglielminetti and Concetta Rondinelli
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 136What does “below, but close to, two per cent” mean? Assessing the ECB’s reaction function with real time dataMaritta Paloviita, Markus Haavio, Pirkka Jalasjoki, Juha Kilponen
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 132Euro area portfolio flows in 2020: the impact of the Covid-19 crisisJulia Schmidt, Olivier Sirello
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 131Investment funds, monetary policy, and the global financial cycleChristoph Kaufmann
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 128Effects of a European Unemployment Benefit Scheme on consumption risk sharing and production efficiencyZeno Enders, David Vespermann
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 126Intergenerational macroeconomicsGabriel Makhlouf
Jul 2021Policy NoteNo 248The Future of BitcoinWim Boonstra
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 116The euro area sovereign debt markets in the crisis: role and impact on financial stability perspectivesDenis Beau
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 109Quantifying bias and inaccuracy of upper-level aggregation in Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices for Germany and the euro areaBy Thomas Knetsch, Julika Herzberg , Patrick Schwind and Sebastian Weinand
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 107Building a more effective financial safety net for poor countriesBruno Cabrillac, Luc Jacolin
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 105Monetary policy space and monetary policy strategies for the euro areaMarkus Haavio, Olli-Matti Laine
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 104The Economic Case for Global Vaccinations: An Epidemiological Model with International Production NetworksCem Çakmaklı, Selva Demiralp, Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan, Sevcan Yeşiltaş, Muhammed A. Yıldırım
May 2021Policy NoteNo 242Does the upturn in Eurozone money growth imply 5% inflation?Tim Congdon
May 2021Policy BriefNo 95A digital euro to meet the expectations of EuropeansFabio Panetta
May 2021Policy BriefNo 94Climate risks and collateral: a methodological experimentPierre-François Weber, Bünyamin Erkan, Antoine Oustry, Romain Svartzman
May 2021Policy NoteNo 239How to prevent a too restrictive fiscal policy in Europe?Wim Boonstra
May 2021Policy BriefNo 88Strengthening the international role of the euroGergely Hudecz, Gong Cheng, Edmund Moshammer, Alexander Raabe
May 2021Policy BriefNo 87Banking regulation and the benefits of international cooperation – views from a banking supervisorJoachim Wuermeling
May 2021Policy NoteNo 236Europe’s growth gap: reconciling Keynes and SchumpeterFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
May 2021Policy BriefNo 86The Bewildering Effects of COVID-19 and Other Recessions on Forecast Accuracy MeasurementsBoriss Siliverstovs
May 2021Policy NoteNo 234Building-back-better after the Covid-19 crisis in Europe: The twin transition and divergenceMarco Buti, István P. Székely
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 75Europe: the shock of Covid-19 and the fear of accelerated zombificationHélène Baudchon, Louis Boisset, Guillaume Derrien, Kenza Charef
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 74The Great Depression, banking crisis, and Keynes’ paradox of thriftVictor Degorce, Eric Monnet
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 70The impact of Covid-19 on global value chainsHeli Simola
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 68Banking union - achievements and challengesLuis de Guindos
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 231The challenges to the banking sector a year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemicPablo Hernández de Cos
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 65EMU deepening and sovereign debt spreads: using political space to achieve policy spaceIván Kataryniuk, Víctor Mora-Bajén, Javier J. Pérez
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 60EU – US: Towards renewed transatlantic cooperation?Maartje Wijffelaars, Philip Marey
Mar 2021Policy NoteNo 228CBDC: Where is the unique selling proposition?Peter Bofinger,Thomas Haas
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 53Who has purchased euro area debt since the start of the health crisis?Olivier Sirello
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 225Sharing Economy in the Financial Industry: A Platform Approach towards Sharing in Regulatory Reporting using the Shapley ValueAaron Janowski, Moritz Plenk, Mirko Haselwander
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 48Crisis management for medium-sized banks: the case for a European approachAndrea Enria
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 216Capital Buffer Assignments to Other Systemically Important Institutions in the Euro area – Is the Country Heterogeneity in the EU caused by Regulatory Capture?Michael Sigmund
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 36A stronger voice for Europe in global developmentWerner Hoyer
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 207Surge in corporate insolvencies hitting German banksJan Schildbach
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 35Keynes and Schumpeter are what the European economy needs right nowSylvain Broyer
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 204Lessons from the Swedish anti-corona strategyLieven Noppe
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 202Policy revolutionElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Stanley Fischer, Philipp Hildebrand
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 201Central banks’ response to the “tragedy on the horizon”François Villeroy de Galhau
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 200Finding the Right “Hall of Mirrors”: The Mixed Blessings of Lessons from the Past for Shaping a Post-COVID FutureRobert Holzmann
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 198The shadow of fiscal dominance: Misconceptions, perceptions and perspectivesIsabel Schnabel
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 27To each crisis its analogy, to each analogy its critical reflectionRobert Holzmann
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 194Home- and host-country prudential regulation and spillovers in dollar creditStefan Avdjiev, Bryan Hardy, Patrick McGuire, Goetz von Peter
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 26Global value chains and the challenge of Covid-19Antoine Berthou, Juan Carluccio, Guillaume Gaulier
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 192A rule-based monetary strategy for the European Central Bank: a call for monetary stabilityJuan E. Castañeda
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 190Finland and monetary policy through three crisesTuomas Välimäki and Meri Obstbaum
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 189Financial integration in the Nordic-Baltic region vis-à-vis the EU: A Swedish perspectiveDavid Farelius, Stefan Ingves, Magnus Jonsson
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 24The big debt surgeRalph Solveen
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 186European Recovery Fund: Sceptics Q&AReza Moghadam, Jacob Nell, Joao Almeida, Bruna Skarica, Markus Guetschow
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 185The Macroeconomic Impact of NPLs in Euro Area CountriesIvan Huljak, Reiner Martin, Diego Moccero, Cosimo Pancaro
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 21How effective are bank levies in reducing leverage given the debt bias of corporate income taxation?Franziska Bremus, Kirsten Schmidt, Lena Tonzer
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 183Retail Central Bank Digital Currencies: means of payment vs store of valueSantiago Fernández de Lis, Pablo Urbiola
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 182Europe’s answer to Libra – potential and prerequisites of a programmable euroAndreas Krautscheid, Tobias Tenner, Siegfried Utzig
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 19Banking between two crisesKarel Lannoo
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 178Covalization: Europe on the Rack Between Globalization and Covid - A Historian’s Perspective on the European Union: Europe and GlobalizationHarold James
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 176Credit Guarantees in the COVID-19 crisis – Relevance and Economic ImpactJulien Brault, Simone Signore
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 175Towards a wider international role for the euroFrancesco Papadia, Konstantinos Efstathiou
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 173A first look at fiscal dynamics in the Euro area after COVID-19: the case for a shift in the fiscal governance systemMarco Protopapa
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 174The international role of the euroMarco Buti
May 2020Policy NoteNo 171US dollar funding markets during the Covid-19 crisis – the international dimensionEgemen Eren, Andreas Schrimpf, Vladyslav Sushko
May 2020Policy NoteNo 169Making banking integration work for better risk sharing in the eurozone: the role of cross-border banking consolidationMathias Hoffmann
May 2020Policy NoteNo 168Cross-border consolidation in the European banking sector: between dreams and realityJan Van Hove
May 2020Policy BriefNo 10German Constitutional Court vs ECB: Law, Economics and PoliticsDonato Masciandaro
May 2020Policy NoteNo 166Turning collective savings into private equity investments: The Covid-19 crisis as a catalyst for pan-European efficient resource allocationGeorges Hübner
May 2020Policy BriefNo 8The currency composition of foreign exchange reservesHiro Ito and Robert N McCauley
May 2020Policy NoteNo 164Can we compare the COVID-19 and 2008 crises?Marc-Olivier Strauss-Kahn
May 2020Policy NoteNo 163Coronavirus and the world of workMonika Kiss
May 2020Policy BriefNo 7Covid-19 policy response and the role of the EIBDebora Revoltella
May 2020Policy BriefNo 5An EU Recovery Fund: How to square the circle?Kajus Hagelstam, Alice Zoppè, Cristina Sofia Dias
May 2020Policy NoteNo 161Shh, don’t say it! ECB Helicopter Money: Economics and PoliticsDonato Masciandaro
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 160Interlinking Europe’s recovery plan and the next EU budgetKevin Körner and Barbara Böttcher
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 159Embedded supervision: how to build regulation into Libra 2.0 and the token economyRaphael Auer
Apr 2020Policy BriefNo 2Politics and Economics of Global CurrenciesPaul De Grauwe
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 157The search for the right European Financing Instruments in the Corona Pandemic - ESM Liquidity Assistance versus Corona BondsFriedrich Heinemann
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 155The range of different opinions and moods in Germany on collective ‘corona bonds’Ingobert Waltenberger
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 152European banks in the corona crisisJan Schildbach
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 150How deep will it fall? Comparing the euro area recessions of 2020 and 2009Andreas Breitenfellner, Paul Ramskogler
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 148Reflections on the health and financial crisisJacques de Larosière
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 147Does It Fit? Tweeting on Monetary Policy and Central Bank CommunicationDonato Masciandaro, Davide Romelli, Gaia Rubera
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 144Euro Area Economics: Putting the OOH into HICPJacob Nell, Bruna Skarica, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 138Euro Area Economics: Greenflation?Jacob Nell, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 136Mortgage Lending and Macroprudential Policy in the UK and USAlan Brener
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 135Cost-Efficiency and Productivity of euro area banksIvan Huljak, Reiner Martin, Diego Moccero
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 132The European Banking UnionMargarita Delgado
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 130European Banking Consolidation: Can a view to the past inform current policy efforts?Peter Hahn
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 121The quest for policy scope: Implications for monetary policy strategiesKlaas Knot
Dec 2019Policy NoteNo 120Investing in Europe’s Competitiveness and SustainabilityWerner Hoyer
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 113Ten years after Lehman, is the financial system safer?Denis Beau
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 107Tackling non-performing loans in EuropePeter Grasmann, Markus Aspegren, Nicolas Willems
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 104On Crypto AssetsAndrei Kirilenko
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 103Non-banks in the EU: ensuring a smooth transition to a Capital Markets UnionFatima Pires
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 99The euro’s global role: past, present and futureArnaud Mehl
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 98Making the most of the EMU: Challenges and opportunities for structural reformsLuiz de Mello
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 96Reconciling risk sharing with market discipline: A constructive approach to euro area reformIsabel Schnabel
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 93European Economic and Monetary Union: from the Past into the FutureJean-Claude Trichet
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 85Libra: A new competitor among international currencies?Beat Weber
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 83Global economic governance at a crossroadsCarlo Monticelli
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 79Financial aspects of BrexitThomas Url
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 77Thoughts for a third EU Referendum: Revoke Article 50 OR Leave with “a” dealGraham Bishop
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 76Chinese foreign investment: a dangerous obsession or a new normal? Get ready for the latter!Peter Havlik
May 2019Policy NoteNo 72Analysing the Economics of BREXIT and World TradeDavid T. Llewellyn
May 2019Policy NoteNo 71Rethinking the Trade-offs for Monetary Policy in an Era of GlobalizationEnrique Martínez-García
May 2019Policy NoteNo 70The impact of Brexit on growth and the public financesIain Begg
Apr 2019Policy NoteNo 67What is „Modern Money Theory“ (MMT)?Beat Weber
Mar 2019Policy NoteNo 62Market power: a complex realityPeter Praet
Mar 2019Policy NoteNo 59New Frontiers in the Euro Debate in IcelandThorsteinn Thorgeirsson
Feb 2019Policy NoteNo 55Europe needs reforms for inclusive growth. Do Europeans agree?Pier Carlo Padoan
Jan 2019Policy NoteNo 52Monetary Policy beyond normalizationMaria Demertzis
Oct 2018Policy NoteNo 44A Financial Union for the Euro AreaPoul M. Thomsen
Jun 2018Policy NoteNo 36Temporary Eurobill Fund (TEF): 30 FAQsGraham Bishop
May 2018Policy NoteNo 35Strengthening the euro area Architecture: A proposal for Purple bondsLorenzo Bini Smaghi, Michala Marcussen
May 2018Policy NoteNo 34Modern financial repression in the euro area crisis: making high public debt sustainable?Ad van Riet
Apr 2018Policy NoteNo 30In the euro area, discipline is of the essence, but risk-sharing is no less importantDaniel Daianu
Mar 2018Policy NoteNo 29European Monetary Union reform preferences of French and German parliamentariansSebastian Blesse, Pierre C. Boyer, Friedrich Heinemann, Eckhard Janeba, Anasuya Raj
Mar 2018Policy NoteNo 28Credit conditions and corporate investment in EuropeLaurent Maurin, Rozalia Pal, Philipp-Bastian Brutscher
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 25The New Silk Road: Implications for EuropeStephan Barisitz, Alice Radzyner
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 24Fairness and Support for the Reforms: Lessons from the Transition EconomiesSergei Guriev
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 23The occasional importance of the current account in an era of a global savings glutJesper Berg, Steffen Lind
Dec 2017Policy NoteNo 22Deepening the Economic and Monetary Union: the EU priorities by 2025 and beyondMarco Buti
Nov 2017Policy NoteNo 21Risk sharing in EMU: key insights from a literature reviewDemosthenes Ioannou, David Schäfer
Oct 2017Policy NoteNo 19Is cash back? Assessing the recent increase in cash demandClemens Jobst, Helmut Stix
Mar 2017Policy NoteNo 11Completing the architecture of the EuroLorenzo Bini Smaghi
May 2016Policy NoteNo 7Ten Myths in the Brexit DebateDavid T. Llewellyn
May 2016Policy NoteNo 6Bank secrecy in offshore centres, capital flows and blacklisting: It takes two to tangoDonato Masciandaro
Apr 2016Policy NoteNo 5Some seeming paradoxes or interesting points of Russia’s economy and banking sectorStephan Barisitz
Dec 2015Policy NoteNo 3Cash without future? Future without cash? A wider viewChristian Beer, Urs W. Birchler, Ernest Gnan
Oct 2015Policy NoteNo 2Modigliani–Miller, Basel 3 and CRD 4Morten Balling

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