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SUERF Policy Notes and SUERF Policy Briefs

SUERF Policy Notes & Briefs offer accessible and concise, high-quality, authoritative and informed analysis on topical issues related to European money and finance. They make research by SUERF Member institutions and academic researchers available to the SUERF network and beyond. SUERF Policy Notes & Briefs are published weekly on the SUERF webpage.

To submit your findings to the SUERF Policy Note and Brief series please contact suerf@oenb.at.

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Date publishedSUERFIssueTitleAuthor(s)
May 2022Policy BriefNo 340Optimal Timing of Policy Interventions in Troubled BanksPhilipp König, Paul Mayer, David Pothier
May 2022Policy BriefNo 339Does own wealth and wealth of others matter for life satisfaction?Antje Jantsch, Julia Le Blanc,Tobias Schmidt
May 2022Policy BriefNo 338Mortgage debt relief after economic shocks: lessons from the pandemicEdward Gaffney, Fergal McCann, Johannes Stroebel
May 2022Policy NoteNo 279Who comes after us? The correct mindset for designing a Central Bank Digital CurrencyAntoine d’Aligny, Emmanuel Benoist, Florian Dold, Christian Grothoff, Özgür Kesim, Martin Schanzenbach
May 2022Policy BriefNo 336BUSINESS RESILIENCE IN THE PANDEMIC AND BEYOND: Adaptation, innovation, financing and climate action from Eastern Europe to Central AsiaLuca Gattini, Rozália Pál, Helena Schweiger, Laura Valderrama
May 2022Policy BriefNo 335Macroeconomic Implications and Differences of Oil and Gas Price ShocksThomas Zörner, Nico Petz
May 2022Policy BriefNo 334The local presence of global banksIñaki Aldasoro, John Caparusso, Yingyuan Chen
May 2022Policy NoteNo 278Monitoring Narratives: an Application to the Equity MarketPascal Blanqué, Mohamed Ben Slimane, Amina Cherief, Théo Le Guenedal, Takaya Sekine, Lauren Stagnol
May 2022Policy BriefNo 333The effect of introducing a Loan-to-Value limit on homeownershipCindy Biesenbeek, Mauro Mastrogiacomo, Rob Alessie, Jakob de Haan
May 2022Policy BriefNo 331Caution: Do not cross! Distance to regulatory capital buffers and lending in Covid-19 timesCyril Couaillier, Marco Lo Duca, Alessio Reghezza, Costanza Rodriguez d’Acri
May 2022Policy NoteNo 277What business model for the Digital Euro? Lessons from Brazil and SwitzerlandPeter Bofinger, Thomas Haas
May 2022Policy BriefNo 329Digital payment behaviour differs significantly across countriesJakob Mølgaard Heisel, Marcus Clausen Brock
May 2022Policy BriefNo 326The impact of QE on sovereign riskDirk Broeders, Leo de Haan, Jan Willem van den End
May 2022Policy BriefNo 325Climate Change and Individual BehaviorRené Bernard, Panagiota Tzamourani, Michael Weber
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 323Is Super-Active Fiscal Policy Desirable?Roberto M. Billi, Carl E. Walsh
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 322Trends in Monetary Policy Transparency Around the WorldNergiz Dincer, Barry Eichengreen, Petra Geraats
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 320Global Banking, Regulatory Spillovers, and the Benefits of Macroprudential Policy CoordinationPierre-Richard Agénor, Timothy P Jackson, Luiz A Pereira da Silva
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 317Evidence on financial literacy and financial inclusion in AlbaniaElona Dushku
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 314Private Debt for SMEs – Market OverviewHelmut Kraemer-Eis, Jörn Block, Antonia Botsari, Salome Gvetadze, Frank Lang, Carlos Krause, Alexandra Moritz, Anna Schulze
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 311Making Sense of Consumers’ Inflation ExpectationsLovisa Reiche, Aidan Meyler, Christian Gayer
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 309The low-carbon transition, climate commitments and firm credit riskSante Carbone, Margherita Giuzio, Sujit Kapadia, Johannes Sebastian Krämer, Ken Nyholm, Katia Vozian
Apr 2022Policy BriefNo 308Investor demand in syndicated bond issuances: stylised factsMartin Hillebrand, Marko Mravlak, Peter Schwendner
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 307On the Welfare Effects of Using Energy and Emissions Taxes to Finance a Labour Tax Reduction in a Multi-sector DSGE ModelNatascha Hinterlang, Anika Martin, Oke Röhe, Nikolai Stähler, Johannes Strobel
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 306ECB Communication and its Impact on Financial MarketsKlodiana Istrefi, Florens Odendahl, Giulia Sestieri
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 304Mind the gap: The widening post-pandemic gender divideJoyce Chang, Amy Ho
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 272Financing Faster Growth For Europe’s SMEsSylvain Broyer, Sarah Limbach, Cihan Duran
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 271Financial stability and crypto-assetsPablo Hernández de Cos
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 302Optimal Monetary Policy and Capital MisallocationBeatriz González, Galo Nuño, Dominik Thaler, Silvia Albrizio
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 300Household saving and fiscal policy: Evidence for the euro area from a thick modelling perspectiveCristina Checherita-Westphal, Marcel Stechert
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 299When domestic and foreign QE overlapPaola Di Casola, Pär Stockhammar
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 270Will the supply-driven oil price shock unanchor inflation expectations?Matthew Luzzetti, Brett Ryan, Justin Weidner, Amy Yang
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 298Covid-19 government subsidies and their implications for pandemic labour productivityTommaso Bighelli, Tibor Lalinsky, Juuso Vanhala
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 297Central banks’ in-house credit assessment systems – supporting the Eurosystem’s response to the pandemic and its climate change action planAviram Levy, Florian Resch, Anna Maria Rossi, Stephan Sauer
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 293Tax Race to the Bottom Harms Location Attractiveness of Western EuropeLeonie Fischer, Jost H. Heckemeyer, Christoph Spengel, Daniela Steinbrenner
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 268Crisis-tested Europe – Solidarity with Ukraine spurs European identityHeinz Handler
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 288Economists: not enough transparency? Evidence from a reproducibility exercise of a top economic journalSylvérie Herbert, Hautahi Kingi, Flavio Stanchi, Lars Vilhuber
Mar 2022Policy BriefNo 287The implications of demographics, pension systems, and migration for monetary policyMarcin Bielecki, Michał Brzoza-Brzezina, Marcin Kolasa
Mar 2022Policy NoteNo 267Towards a single operational indicator in the SGP – A look at the properties of the current expenditure benchmarkNicholai Benalal, Maximilian Freier, Wim Melyn, Stefan Van Parys, Lukas Reiss
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 281GDP-linked bonds and the fear of ambiguityDeniz Igan, Taehoon Kim, Antoine Levy
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 279Brexit: Trade diversion due to trade policy uncertaintyEduardo Gutiérrez, Aitor Lacuesta, César Martín-Machuca
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 278The Political Phillips Curve in the Euro Area: Parliamentary Voice on ECB Monetary PolicyFederico M. Ferrara, Donato Masciandaro, Manuela Moschella, Davide Romelli
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 276The COVID Non-Performing Loan ’Tsunami’ that Never Happened and How to Avoid it NowReiner Martin, Piroska Nagy-Mohacsi, Elina Ribakova, Jonathan M. Fortun Vargas
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 275The effectiveness of ECB euro liquidity lines: spillovers and spillbacksSilvia Albrizio, Iván Kataryniuk, Luis Molina, Jan Schäfer
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 273Revisiting the Properties of MoneyIsaiah Hull, Or Sattath
Feb 2022Policy NoteNo 265Austrian conceptions of money and the rise of digital currencyMichael Peneder
Feb 2022Policy BriefNo 270Population ageing and the digital divideSebastian Doerr, Jon Frost, Leonardo Gambacorta, Han Qiu
Feb 2022Policy NoteNo 264High earners in the European banking sectorEmma-Faye Dertnig, Jakob Hanzl, Mario Hübler, Christoph Prenner
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 267Pledge or pretext? Lessons from the Fiscal CompactMartin Larch, Matthias Busse, László Jankovics
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 264Why disinflation can be more costly in a small open economy than in a closed economyOleksandr Faryna, Magnus Jonsson, Nadiia Shapovalenko
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 263Pitfalls of Inflation Tolerance Ranges Hervé Le Bihan, Magali Marx, Julien Matheron
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 261Firm financing and public liquidity measures during the pandemicIda Rommedahl Julin, Andreas Kuchler, Alexander Meldgaard Otte
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 260Credit Constrained Firms and Government Subsidies: Evidence from a European Union ProgramTirupam Goel, Péter Lang, Eszter Balogh, Ádám Banai, Martin Stancsics, Előd Takáts, Álmos Telegdy
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 256Operating leverage and its importance during the Covid-19 pandemicKatharina Allinger, Ivan Huljak
Jan 2022Policy BriefNo 255Climate actions and macro-financial stability: The role of central banksFrancesca Diluiso, Barbara Annicchiarico, Matthias Kalkuhl, Jan. C. Minx
Jan 2022Policy NoteNo 262The encrypted threat: Bitcoin’s social cost and regulatory responsesUlrich Bindseil, Patrick Papsdorf, Jürgen Schaaf
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 253Money market funds in the euro area: Vulnerabilities and the role of macroprudential policyTom Hudepohl, Jeroen Huiting, Annelie Petersen
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 250Big techs in finance: a new trade-off between efficiency and privacyFrederic Boissay, Torsten Ehlers, Leonardo Gambacorta, Hyun Song Shin
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 249Monetary and fiscal complementarity in the Covid-19 pandemicJagjit S Chadha, Luisa Corrado, Jack Meaning, Tobias Schuler
Dec 2021Policy NoteNo 260Identifying lessons from the current crisis for the prudential framework of the banking system Pablo Hernández de Cos
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 248Africa and COVID-19: Can the financial sector stay on course for a green and digital future?Debora Revoltella, Claudio Cali, Barbara Marchitto, Nina Fenton, Ricardo Santos
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 246Public trust only partly immune to COVID-19 pandemicCarin van der Cruijsen, Jakob de Haan, Nicole Jonker
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 243The Macroeconomic Impact of Euro Area Labor Market ReformsGerhard Rünstler
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 242The Role of Contact Tracing in the Long Pandemic WarLeonardo Melosi, Matthias Rottner
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 240The European CBAM as a first step towards a globally coordinated climate policyDaniel Römer, Milena Schwarz
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 239The Leverage Effect of Bank DisclosuresPhilipp J. König, Christian Laux, David Pothier
Dec 2021Policy NoteNo 258The importance of Private Equity and Venture Capital financing for Greentech companies in EuropeHelmut Kraemer-Eis, Antonia Botsari, Salome Gvetadze, Frank Lang, Wouter Torfs
Dec 2021Policy BriefNo 236How to steer interest rates in negative territory? An analysis of reserve tiering and interbank market activityLucas Marc Fuhrer, Matthias Jüttner, Jan Wrampelmeyer, Matthias Zwicker
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 234Optimism is bad for fiscal outcomesMartin Larch, Janis Malzubris, Matthias Busse
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 232Central banks on social media – the reception of ECB communication among experts and non-experts on TwitterMichael Ehrmann, Alena Wabitsch
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 231A Multi-level Network Approach to Spillovers Analysis: An Application to the Maltese Domestic Investment Funds SectorFrancesco Meglioli, Stephanie Gauci
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 230Temporary panic or fundamental change in payment habits in Europe? Lesson from COVID-19 pandemic shift towards cashless paymentsMichal Polasik, Radoslaw Kotkowski
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 226Benefits of internationalisation for acquirers and targets – but unevenly distributedRainer Frey, Stefan Goldbach
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 223A taxonomy of sustainable finance taxonomiesTorsten Ehlers, Diwen Gao, Frank Packer
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 221External Costs of Freight Transport – Relevance and Implications of Internalisation at the European LevelElisabeth Christen, Bettina Meinhart, Franz Sinabell, Gerhard Streicher
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 220Consumption and service sector key factors in the COVID-19 trade collapseHeli Simola
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 219How do banks propagate economic shocks?Yusuf Emre Akgündüz, Seyit Mümin Cılasun, H. Özlem Dursun-de Neef, Yavuz Selim Hacıhasanoğlu, İbrahim Yarba
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 217How Pandemics Affect the Financial System: Fintech Adoption, and the Digital DivideOrkun Saka, Barry Eichengreen, Cevat Giray Aksoy
Nov 2021Policy BriefNo 214How do Loan-to-Value Caps Impact Bank Lending and Credit Spillover?Selva Bahar Baziki, Tanju Çapacıoğlu
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 211Technical barriers to trade play the most important role in trade of goods in information and communications technologyMahdi Ghodsi
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 210Exploring DORA - the Digital Operational Resilience Act and its impact on banks and their supervisorsJoachim Wuermeling
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 208Human Frictions in the Transmission of Economic PolicyFrancesco D’Acunto, Daniel Hoang, Maritta Paloviita, Michael Weber
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 207The Rise in Foreign Currency Bonds: The Role of US Monetary Policy and Capital ControlsPhilippe Bacchetta, Rachel Cordonier, Ouarda Merrouche
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 204Combining negative rates, forward guidance and asset purchases: Identification and impacts of the ECB’s unconventional policiesMassimo Rostagno, Carlo Altavilla, Giacomo Carboni, Wolfgang Lemke, Roberto Motto, Arthur Saint Guilhem
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 202Revisiting the link between government debt and sovereign interest rates in the euro areaStéphanie Pamies, Nicolas Carnot, Anda Pătărău
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 201Basel III implementation in the European UnionPablo Hernández de Cos
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 200The highly heterogeneous impact of the Covid-19 crisis on French firmsBenjamin Bureau, Anne Duquerroy, Julien Giorgi, Mathias Lé, Suzanne Scott, Frédéric Vinas
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 199The impact of macroprudential policies on capital flows in CESEEMarkus Eller, Niko Hauzenberger, Florian Huber, Helene Schuberth, Lukas Vashold
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 197How to Design a CBDC? Remuneration, Collateral Haircuts and Quantity ConstraintsKatrin Assenmacher, Aleksander Berentsen, Claus Brand, Nora Lamersdorf
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 193The effect of Eurosystem asset purchase programmes on euro area sovereign bond yields during the COVID-19 pandemicGeorge Hondroyiannis, Dimitrios Papaoikonomou
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 192Optimal Robust Monetary Policy with Parameters and Output Gap UncertaintyAdriana Grasso, Guido Traficante
Oct 2021Policy BriefNo 191Macroeconomic stabilisation in the presence of the effective lower bound: the case of the euro areaGünter Coenen, Carlos Montes-Galdón, Sebastian Schmidt
Oct 2021Policy NoteNo 257Systemic Implications of the Bail-in Design: A Precis of our Main TextJ. Doyne Farmer, Charles Goodhart, Alissa M. Kleinnijenhuis
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 190The Effects of Fiscal Policy when Planning Horizons are FiniteJoep Lustenhouwer, Kostas Mavromatis
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 189How do real and monetary integrations affect inflation dynamics in Turkey?Hülya Saygılı
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 188The Path to Euro Area and Banking Union Membership: Assessing the Incentives for “Close Cooperation” and Adherence to the Exchange Rate Mechanism IIMaria J. Nieto, Dalvinder Singh
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 187Can policy boost the international role of currencies? Lessons from international trade invoicingGeorgios Georgiadis, Helena Le Mezo, Arnaud Mehl, Cédric Tille
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 184Frozen markets: Iceland’s experience with capital controlsFrancis Breedon, Thórarinn G. Pétursson, Paolo Vitale
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 256Ultra low interest rates from the perspective of a central bankerLars Rohde
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 180Sovereign CDS Volatility as an Indicator of Economic UncertaintyMaximilian Böck, Martin Feldkircher, Burkhard Raunig
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 178Contagious ZombiesChristian Bittner, Falko Fecht, Co-Pierre Georg
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 254Fiscal-Monetary Crosswinds in the Euro AreaLucrezia Reichlin, Giovanni Ricco, Matthieu Tarbé
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 253Raising r*: Why, how, and if not now, when?Robert Holzmann, Maria T. Valderrama
Sep 2021Policy NoteNo 252Forging the Future of Monetary Union – taking stock and looking forwardMarkus Rodlauer, Rolf Strauch
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 177Labor adjustment and productivity dynamics: cross-country evidence and policy implicationsMaarten Dossche, Andrea Gazzani, Vivien Lewis
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 176Does the ECB’s monetary policy react to the balance of risks?Philippine Cour-Thimann, Alexander Jung
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 175The Liquidity of the Government Bond Market – What Impact Does Quantitative Easing Have? Evidence from SwedenMarianna Blix Grimaldi, Alberto Crosta, Dong Zhang
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 174Low-for-ultra-long policy will not be enough for JapanHiroshi Ugai
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 173An export supply channel of exchange ratesErik Frohm
Sep 2021Policy BriefNo 171Curb your enthusiasm: the aggregate short-run effects of a borrower-based measureJoana Passinhas, Daniel Abreu
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 168Monetary Gold and Central Bank CapitalKenneth Sullivan
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 167Limits of stress-test based bank regulationTirupam Goel, Isha Agarwal
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 166Record global FX reserves after COVID shockMichael S Hanson
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 164Banks Fearing the Drought? Liquidity Hoarding as a Response to Idiosyncratic Interbank Funding Dry-UpsHelge C.N. Littke, Matias Ossandon Busch
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 159On the Effectiveness of Macroprudential PolicyMiguel Ampudia, Marco Lo Duca, Mátyás Farkas, Gabriel Perez Quiros, Mara Pirovano, Gerhard Rünstler, Eugen Tereanu
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 158Bank pricing of corporate loansMárcio Mateus, Tiago Pinheiro
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 157Covid-19 and Capital Flows: The Responses of Investors to the Responses of GovernmentsStefan Goldbach, Volker Nitsch
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 154Can Internet banking affect households’ participation in financial markets and financial awareness?Valentina Michelangeli, Eliana Viviano
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 153What’s the Message? Interpreting Monetary Policy Through Central Bankers’ SpeechesMartin Feldkircher, Paul Hofmarcher, Pierre Siklos
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 150Digital euro has potential in the NetherlandsMichiel Bijlsma, Carin van der Cruijsen, Nicole Jonker and Jelmer Reijerink
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 148The role of information channels and experience for households’ inflation expectationsChristian Conrad, Zeno Enders and Alexander Glas
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 251Green Liquidity Moves MainstreamPatrick Drury Byrne, Sandeep Chana and Sylvain Broyer
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 147Proportionality in banking regulation: who, what and how?Raihan Zamil
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 146Digital payments and European sovereigntyBurkhard Balz
Aug 2021Policy NoteNo 250Roads for the future: Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) and Innovative PaymentsFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 145It’s in the Tails: The Distributional Income Effects of Monetary PolicyNiklas Amberg, Thomas Jansson, Mathias Klein and Anna Rogantini Picco
Aug 2021Policy BriefNo 143The dynamics of macroeconomic downside riskBy Davide Delle Monache, Andrea De Polis and Ivan Petrella
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 141Some warning signals about average inflation targetingSeppo Honkapohja, Nigel McClung
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 136What does “below, but close to, two per cent” mean? Assessing the ECB’s reaction function with real time dataMaritta Paloviita, Markus Haavio, Pirkka Jalasjoki, Juha Kilponen
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 135Liquidity in the German corporate bond market: has the CSPP made a difference?Kathi Schlepper
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 133Evidence of a macroeconomic reversal ratePaul Konietschke, Anna Samarina, Irina Stanga, Jan Willem van den End
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 132Euro area portfolio flows in 2020: the impact of the Covid-19 crisisJulia Schmidt, Olivier Sirello
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 131Investment funds, monetary policy, and the global financial cycleChristoph Kaufmann
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 130How well are consumers’ inflation expectations anchored to the ECB’s inflation aim?Gabriele Galati, Richhild Moessner, Maarten van Rooij
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 129Nearshoring Perspectives after COVID-19: Can Western Balkans Benefit?Branimir Jovanovic, Mahdi Ghodsi
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 126Intergenerational macroeconomicsGabriel Makhlouf
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 123Five stylized facts on the Great LockdownFrancesco Grigoli, Daniel Leigh, and Antonio Spilimbergo
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 122Barriers to net zero: How firms can make or break the green transitionRalph De Haas, Ralf Martin, Mirabelle Muûls, Helena Schweiger
Jul 2021Policy BriefNo 121How climate protection adds to inflationJörg Krämer, Ralph Solveen
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 115Understanding the financial risks of nature loss: exploring policy options for financial authoritiesKatie Kedward, Josh Ryan-Collins, Hugues Chenet
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 114How to issue a privacy-preserving central bank digital currencyChristian Grothoff, Thomas Moser
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 112Fund Cross-Holdings and Financial StabilityDaniel Fricke, Hannes Wilke
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 111A rising core lifts all basketsBruce Kasman, Joseph Lupton, Michael S Hanson
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 109Quantifying bias and inaccuracy of upper-level aggregation in Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices for Germany and the euro areaBy Thomas Knetsch, Julika Herzberg , Patrick Schwind and Sebastian Weinand
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 108Can central bank communication help to stabilise inflation expectations?Alexander Jung, Patrick Kuehl
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 106What consumption habits tell us about the joint dynamics of government bond yields and stock prices internationallyThomas Nitschka, Shajivan Satkurunathan
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 105Monetary policy space and monetary policy strategies for the euro areaMarkus Haavio, Olli-Matti Laine
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 104The Economic Case for Global Vaccinations: An Epidemiological Model with International Production NetworksCem Çakmaklı, Selva Demiralp, Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan, Sevcan Yeşiltaş, Muhammed A. Yıldırım
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 103A bigger house at the cost of an empty fridge? The effect of households’ indebtedness on their consumption: Micro-evidence using Belgian HFCS dataPhilip Du Caju, Guillaume Périlleux, François Rycx, Ilan Tojerow
Jun 2021Policy NoteNo 245A technical toolkit to monitor a pandemic outbreak from a central bank perspectiveAlexie Alupoaiei, Csaba Bálint, Matei Kubinschi
Jun 2021Policy NoteNo 244External Vulnerabilities and Exchange Rate Pass-Through: The Case of Emerging MarketsAbdullah Kazdal, Muhammed Hasan Yılmaz
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 102Assessing the impact of Basel III: Evidence from macroeconomic modelsOlivier de Bandt, Bora Durdu, Hibiki Ichiue, Yasin Mimir, Jolan Mohimont, Kalin Nikolov, Sigrid Röhrs, Jean-Guillaume Sahuc, Valerio Scalone, Michael Straughan
Jun 2021Policy BriefNo 101The interplay between green policy, electricity prices, financial constraints and jobs: firm-level evidenceGert Bijnens, John Hutchinson, Jozef Konings, Arthur Saint Guilhem
May 2021Policy NoteNo 241Digital Disruption: The Inevitable Rise of CBDCChetan Ahya, Derrick Kam, Julian Richers
May 2021Policy BriefNo 96Real interest rates and demographic developments: the role of population growth and migrationLucas Fuhrer, Nils Herger
May 2021Policy BriefNo 97Stress-Testing Net Trading Income: The Case of European BanksCarla Giglio, Frances Shaw, Nicolas Syrichas and Giuseppe Cappelletti
May 2021Policy BriefNo 93Set-up costs and the financing of young firmsFrançois Derrien, Jean-Stéphane Mésonnier, Guillaume Vuillemey
May 2021Policy BriefNo 91Low Interest Rates and the Distribution of Household DebtMarina Emiris, François Koulischer
May 2021Policy BriefNo 90SPACs (special purpose acquisition companies)Mario Hübler, Jakob Hanzl, Christoph Prenner
May 2021Policy BriefNo 89Foreclosures and House PricesMichele Loberto
May 2021Policy BriefNo 88Strengthening the international role of the euroGergely Hudecz, Gong Cheng, Edmund Moshammer, Alexander Raabe
May 2021Policy BriefNo 87Banking regulation and the benefits of international cooperation – views from a banking supervisorJoachim Wuermeling
May 2021Policy NoteNo 236Europe’s growth gap: reconciling Keynes and SchumpeterFrançois Villeroy de Galhau
May 2021Policy BriefNo 84Data sharing for better policy makingClaudia Buch
May 2021Policy NoteNo 235Negative Interest Rate Policy – The Experience So FarLuis Brandao Marques, Marco Casiraghi, Gaston Gelos, Gunes Kamber, Roland Meeks
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 82The banking supervisors dilemma: wearing many hats on one headSasin Kirakul, Jeffery Yong, Raihan Zamil
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 83Zero Covid: fewer deaths and much less contraction in GDPCécile Philippe, Nicolas Marques
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 233How should the COVID restrictions in England be eased?David K. Miles, Adrian H Heald, Michael Stedman
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 80Fed’s financial stability concerns and monetary policyKlodiana Istrefi, Florens Odendahl, Giulia Sestieri
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 232The Macroeconomics of Covid-19 LeverageThéophile Jégard, Simon Ray
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 78Not all debt is bank debt: Nonbank borrowing in Central, Eastern and Southeastern EuropeKatharina Allinger, Elisabeth Beckmann
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 76The Impact of COVID-19 on European BanksShekhar Aiyar, Mai Chi Dao, Andreas A. Jobst, Aiko Mineshima, Srobona Mitra, Mahmood Pradhan
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 75Europe: the shock of Covid-19 and the fear of accelerated zombificationHélène Baudchon, Louis Boisset, Guillaume Derrien, Kenza Charef
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 72Uncertainty Is Not an Excuse. Integrating Climate Risks into Monetary Policy Operations and Financial SupervisionJulia Anna Bingler, Chiara Colesanti Senni, Pierre Monnin
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 71CESEE’s Macroprudential Policy Response to Covid-19Markus Eller, Reiner Martin, Lukas Vashold
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 70The impact of Covid-19 on global value chainsHeli Simola
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 69Crisis management of credit institutions: Senior unsecured creditors must prepare for bail-inChristine Sif Larsen, Anne Dyrberg Rommer
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 231The challenges to the banking sector a year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemicPablo Hernández de Cos
Apr 2021Policy BriefNo 63The role of fiscal policies in the Covid-19 crisis: scope and limitationsNiels Thygesen
Apr 2021Policy NoteNo 229Shifts in the portfolio holdings of euro area investors in the midst of COVID-19: looking-through investment fundsDaniel Carvalho, Martin Schmitz
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 60EU – US: Towards renewed transatlantic cooperation?Maartje Wijffelaars, Philip Marey
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 57Central bank communication with the general public: effective or not?Nils Brouwer, Jakob de Haan
Mar 2021Policy NoteNo 228CBDC: Where is the unique selling proposition?Peter Bofinger,Thomas Haas
Mar 2021Policy NoteNo 227Scarring in EuropeReza Moghadam, Markus Guetschow, Camille White
Mar 2021Policy BriefNo 54Are lower bank capital requirements an efficient policy tool for supporting credit to SMEs?Michel Dietsch, Henri Fraisse, Mathias Lé, Sandrine Lecarpentier
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 52Pandemic Recession, Recovery Plan and Helicopter Money: A Tale from the SerenissimaCharles Goodhart, Donato Masciandaro, Stefano Ugolini
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 225Sharing Economy in the Financial Industry: A Platform Approach towards Sharing in Regulatory Reporting using the Shapley ValueAaron Janowski, Moritz Plenk, Mirko Haselwander
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 50The rise of digital watchersTill Ebner, Thomas Nellen, Jörn Tenhofen
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 224Vaccination delay to cost Europe EUR90bn in 2021Ludovic Subran, Ana Boata, Patrick Krizan, Katharina Utermöhl
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 223Bank stress tests: their philosophy and their use by prudential authorities during the Covid-19 crisisValère Fourel, Julien Idier, Valerio Scalone, Aurore Schilte
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 47Banking Across Borders: Are Chinese Banks Different?Eugenio Cerutti, Catherine Koch, Swapan-Kumar Pradhan
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 222A pragmatic solution for the liquidity in resolution problemMatthias Gruber, Stefan W. Schmitz
Feb 2021Policy BriefNo 44The evolution of bond and swap tradingMartin Scheicher
Feb 2021Policy NoteNo 221The future of data collection & data management: Agile RegOps for digitalizing the regulatory value chainMartina Drvar, Johannes Turner, Maciej Piechocki, Eric Stiegeler, Daniel Münch
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 220Is the 100% Reserve Reform Finally Getting Topical?Christian Pfister
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 219Buffer usability and potential stigma effectsStefan W. Schmitz, Viola Nellessen, Michaela Posch, Peter Strobl
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 218Interest rate-growth differentials on government debt: an empirical investigation for the euro areaCristina Checherita-Westphal and João Domingues Semeano
Jan 2021Policy NoteNo 216Capital Buffer Assignments to Other Systemically Important Institutions in the Euro area – Is the Country Heterogeneity in the EU caused by Regulatory Capture?Michael Sigmund
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 213COVID-19 pandemic: Perception, confusion and conspiraciesStefan Schneider
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 212Monetary policy effects when interest rates are negativeJoost Bats, Massimo Giuliodori, Aerdt Houben
Dec 2020Policy NoteNo 211Preparing for a higher inflation regimeElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Philipp Hildebrand
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 36A stronger voice for Europe in global developmentWerner Hoyer
Nov 2020Policy BriefNo 37In Support of Monetary Policy: Using the Countercyclical Capital Buffer to Avoid a Reversal Interest RateMatthieu Darracq Pariès, Christoffer Kok, Matthias Rottner
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 207Surge in corporate insolvencies hitting German banksJan Schildbach
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 206Cyber risk in the financial sectorIñaki Aldasoro, Jon Frost, Leonardo Gambacorta, Thomas Leach, David Whyte
Nov 2020Policy NoteNo 205Retail CBDC Remuneration: The Sign MattersChristian Pfister
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 203Tracking Covid: What Worked?Markus Guetschow
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 202Policy revolutionElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Stanley Fischer, Philipp Hildebrand
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 201Central banks’ response to the “tragedy on the horizon”François Villeroy de Galhau
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 200Finding the Right “Hall of Mirrors”: The Mixed Blessings of Lessons from the Past for Shaping a Post-COVID FutureRobert Holzmann
Oct 2020Policy BriefNo 32More travel warnings are almost like a new lockdown for the hospitality industryEric Heymann
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 198The shadow of fiscal dominance: Misconceptions, perceptions and perspectivesIsabel Schnabel
Oct 2020Policy NoteNo 197The Great Demographic Reversal: Ageing Societies, Waning Inequality, and an Inflation RevivalC.A.E. Goodhart, Manoj Pradhan
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 30Can we expect the economy to rebound rapidly?Stéphane Dupraz
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 196The Eurosystem collateral framework in 2018 and 2019Marco Corsi, Benjamin Hartung, Viktoriya Gocheva
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 195The EU’s “Northern enlargement” 25 years on – stocktaking and some thoughts for the futureErnest Gnan and Robert Holzmann
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 29A Journey through the Monetary Cyber WorldChristian Pfister
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 27To each crisis its analogy, to each analogy its critical reflectionRobert Holzmann
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 194Home- and host-country prudential regulation and spillovers in dollar creditStefan Avdjiev, Bryan Hardy, Patrick McGuire, Goetz von Peter
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 26Global value chains and the challenge of Covid-19Antoine Berthou, Juan Carluccio, Guillaume Gaulier
Sep 2020Policy BriefNo 25After Coronavirus: Deflation or Inflation?C.A.E. Goodhart
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 193Inclusive payments for the post-pandemic worldRaphael Auer, Jon Frost, Thomas Lammer, Tara Rice, Amber Wadsworth
Sep 2020Policy NoteNo 191Are bank capital requirements optimally set? Evidence from researchers’ viewsGene Ambrocio, Iftekhar Hasan, Esa Jokivuolle, Kim Ristolainen
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 24The big debt surgeRalph Solveen
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 23Eurozone in times of Covid-19: Debt monetisation by stealthPeter Vanden Houte
Aug 2020Policy NoteNo 186European Recovery Fund: Sceptics Q&AReza Moghadam, Jacob Nell, Joao Almeida, Bruna Skarica, Markus Guetschow
Aug 2020Policy BriefNo 22Radical UncertaintyJohn Kay
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 185The Macroeconomic Impact of NPLs in Euro Area CountriesIvan Huljak, Reiner Martin, Diego Moccero, Cosimo Pancaro
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 21How effective are bank levies in reducing leverage given the debt bias of corporate income taxation?Franziska Bremus, Kirsten Schmidt, Lena Tonzer
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 184Special Update of the European Fiscal MonitorWillem-Pieter de Groen, Inna Oliinyk, Sander van Veldhuizen
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 20How firms are adapting to the lockdown: insights from text miningMathilde Gerardin, Martial Ranvier
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 182Europe’s answer to Libra – potential and prerequisites of a programmable euroAndreas Krautscheid, Tobias Tenner, Siegfried Utzig
Jul 2020Policy BriefNo 18The liquidity trap, monetary policy and the health crisisStéphane Lhuissier
Jul 2020Policy NoteNo 181A sensible fiscal policy for the sharp rise in government debtForrest Capie, Meyrick Chapman, Chris Marsh, Geoffrey Wood
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 180Which factors drive consumers to adopt crypto-assets? Results from an Austrian surveyHelmut Stix
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 178Covalization: Europe on the Rack Between Globalization and Covid - A Historian’s Perspective on the European Union: Europe and GlobalizationHarold James
Jun 2020Policy NoteNo 175Towards a wider international role for the euroFrancesco Papadia, Konstantinos Efstathiou
Jun 2020Policy BriefNo 15There is nothing magic in central bank moneyJean Barthélemy, Adrian Penalver
Jun 2020Policy BriefNo 14Do contactless cards really change the way we pay?Martin Brown, Nicole Hentschel, Hannes Mettler, Helmut Stix
May 2020Policy BriefNo 12An ECB digital currency – a flight of fancy?Yves Mersch
May 2020Policy NoteNo 171US dollar funding markets during the Covid-19 crisis – the international dimensionEgemen Eren, Andreas Schrimpf, Vladyslav Sushko
May 2020Policy BriefNo 11Simulating the distributive effects of the Macron-Merkel Recovery FundFriedrich Heinemann
May 2020Policy NoteNo 170International inflation co-movementsPhilip R. Lane
May 2020Policy NoteNo 169Making banking integration work for better risk sharing in the eurozone: the role of cross-border banking consolidationMathias Hoffmann
May 2020Policy NoteNo 168Cross-border consolidation in the European banking sector: between dreams and realityJan Van Hove
May 2020Policy NoteNo 166Turning collective savings into private equity investments: The Covid-19 crisis as a catalyst for pan-European efficient resource allocationGeorges Hübner
May 2020Policy BriefNo 8The currency composition of foreign exchange reservesHiro Ito and Robert N McCauley
May 2020Policy NoteNo 165Monetary policy implications of digital currenciesKatrin Assenmacher
May 2020Policy NoteNo 164Can we compare the COVID-19 and 2008 crises?Marc-Olivier Strauss-Kahn
May 2020Policy NoteNo 162How large is the coronavirus macro shock? Putting the near-term record-breaking shock in the long-term contextElga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Philipp Hildebrand
May 2020Policy BriefNo 5An EU Recovery Fund: How to square the circle?Kajus Hagelstam, Alice Zoppè, Cristina Sofia Dias
May 2020Policy BriefNo 6Never Let a Good Crisis Go to Waste!Kai A. Konrad, Marcel Thum
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 160Interlinking Europe’s recovery plan and the next EU budgetKevin Körner and Barbara Böttcher
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 158Overview of Central Bank Digital Currency - State of PlayJohannes Duong
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 159Embedded supervision: how to build regulation into Libra 2.0 and the token economyRaphael Auer
Apr 2020Policy BriefNo 3What central banks have done to help the economy survive Covid-19Florens Odendahl, Adrian Penalver, and Urszula Szczerbowicz
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 157The search for the right European Financing Instruments in the Corona Pandemic - ESM Liquidity Assistance versus Corona BondsFriedrich Heinemann
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 154The Prudent Algorithm Principle: A new paradigm for financial supervisionJakob Thomä
Apr 2020Policy NoteNo 152European banks in the corona crisisJan Schildbach
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 144Euro Area Economics: Putting the OOH into HICPJacob Nell, Bruna Skarica, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 143Central Bank Digital Currency: A PrimerChristian Pfister
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 142Are Standard Macro and Credit Policies Enough to Deal with the Economic Fallout from a Global Pandemic? A Proposal for a Negative SME TaxThomas Drechsel, Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 138Euro Area Economics: Greenflation?Jacob Nell, Joao Almeida, Markus Guetschow
Mar 2020Policy NoteNo 137R-star decline and monetary hysteresisPhurichai Rungcharoenkitkul
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 135Cost-Efficiency and Productivity of euro area banksIvan Huljak, Reiner Martin, Diego Moccero
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 133Making sure your bot colleague is less biased than you!Frank De Jonghe
Feb 2020Policy NoteNo 130European Banking Consolidation: Can a view to the past inform current policy efforts?Peter Hahn
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 126Bank resolution, the need to recognize reality in order to prepare for the next crisisJesper Berg, Henrik Bjerre-Nielsen
Jan 2020Policy NoteNo 123DLT-Based Regulatory Reporting - A game changer for the regulatory regime?Daniel Münch, Noah Bellon
Dec 2019Policy NoteNo 120Investing in Europe’s Competitiveness and SustainabilityWerner Hoyer
Dec 2019Policy NoteNo 118Deposit facility rate, bank reserves, and portfolio reallocation incentivesManuel Buchholz, Kirsten Schmidt, Lena Tonzer
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 116Following “Libra” German banks say: The economy needs a programmable digital euroAndreas Krautscheid, Tobias Tenner, Siegfried Utzig
Nov 2019Policy NoteNo 115Putting macroprudential policy to work: a case study on the Dutch housing marketPaul Hilbers, Marco van Hengel
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 109The rise of central banks as sovereign debt holders: Implications for investor basesAlvise Lennkh, Bernhard Bartels, Thibault Vasse
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 108Libra – a view from EuropeHeike Mai
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 106Banks’ behavioral reactions to Basel III: mostly as intendedStefan W. Schmitz
Oct 2019Policy NoteNo 105Dealing with the next downturn: From unconventional monetary policy to unprecedented policy coordination Elga Bartsch, Jean Boivin, Stanley Fischer, Philipp Hildebrand
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 99The euro’s global role: past, present and futureArnaud Mehl
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 97Strengthened EU fiscal framework: fiscal discipline versus economic stabilizationBernhard Grossmann, Gottfried Haber
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 96Reconciling risk sharing with market discipline: A constructive approach to euro area reformIsabel Schnabel
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 95Controlling CBDC through tiered remunerationUlrich Bindseil
Sep 2019Policy NoteNo 93European Economic and Monetary Union: from the Past into the FutureJean-Claude Trichet
Aug 2019Policy NoteNo 92Beliefs and Portfolios: New Measurement and FactsStefano Giglio, Matteo Maggiori, Johannes Stroebel, Stephen Utkus
Aug 2019Policy NoteNo 91How to Make Capitalism Work for All?Anita Angelovska Bezhoska
Aug 2019Policy NoteNo 90Restricting or Abolishing Cash: An Effective Instrument for Eliminating the Shadow Economy, Corruption and Terrorism?Friedrich Schneider
Aug 2019Policy NoteNo 88Mitigating Fiscal Risks from the Financial SectorLudger Schuknecht
Jul 2019Policy NoteNo 86Regulatory complexity and the quest for robust regulationPrasanna Gai, Malcolm Kemp, Antonio Sánchez Serrano, Isabel Schnabel
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 79Financial aspects of BrexitThomas Url
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 78Central banks are too risk averse as investorsMassimiliano Castelli, Stefan Gerlach
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 77Thoughts for a third EU Referendum: Revoke Article 50 OR Leave with “a” dealGraham Bishop
Jun 2019Policy NoteNo 76Chinese foreign investment: a dangerous obsession or a new normal? Get ready for the latter!Peter Havlik
Apr 2019Policy NoteNo 68How to assess the adequacy of capital requirements based on internal models?Susanne Roehrig
Apr 2019Policy NoteNo 64The Euro Area: Staying the Course through Uncertainties François Villeroy de Galhau
Apr 2019Policy NoteNo 63The Euro Area: Creating a Stronger Economic EcosystemChristine Lagarde
Mar 2019Policy NoteNo 61Beyond voluntary disclosure: why a ‘market-shaping’ approach to financial regulation is needed to meet the challenge of climate changeJosh Ryan-Collins
Mar 2019Policy NoteNo 59New Frontiers in the Euro Debate in IcelandThorsteinn Thorgeirsson
Feb 2019Policy NoteNo 57Creating an enabling environment for innovation and digitalisationDebora Revoltella, Tim Bending, Christoph Weiss, Philipp-Bastian Brutscher
Nov 2018Policy NoteNo 48Trends and Cycles in Financial IntermediationPhilip R. Lane
Nov 2018Policy NoteNo 47Regtech meets financial supervision: how climate scenario analysis by supervisors is ushering in a new regulatory paradigmJakob Thomä
Oct 2018Policy NoteNo 44A Financial Union for the Euro AreaPoul M. Thomsen
Oct 2018Policy NoteNo 43A Green Supporting Factor — The Right Policy?Jacob Dankert, Lars van Doorn, Henk Jan Reinders, Olaf Sleijpen
Jul 2018Policy NoteNo 39Green bond finance and certificationTorsten Ehlers, Frank Packer
Jun 2018Policy NoteNo 38The future for central bank balance sheets and their potential use as a macroprudential toolPaul Fisher
Jun 2018Policy NoteNo 36Temporary Eurobill Fund (TEF): 30 FAQsGraham Bishop
May 2018Policy NoteNo 35Strengthening the euro area Architecture: A proposal for Purple bondsLorenzo Bini Smaghi, Michala Marcussen
May 2018Policy NoteNo 32Central Bank Accountability and Judicial ReviewCharles Goodhart, Rosa Lastra
Mar 2018Policy NoteNo 29European Monetary Union reform preferences of French and German parliamentariansSebastian Blesse, Pierre C. Boyer, Friedrich Heinemann, Eckhard Janeba, Anasuya Raj
Mar 2018Policy NoteNo 28Credit conditions and corporate investment in EuropeLaurent Maurin, Rozalia Pal, Philipp-Bastian Brutscher
Jan 2018Policy NoteNo 25The New Silk Road: Implications for EuropeStephan Barisitz, Alice Radzyner
Nov 2017Policy NoteNo 21Risk sharing in EMU: key insights from a literature reviewDemosthenes Ioannou, David Schäfer
Nov 2017Policy NoteNo 20Recent developments in Chinese shadow bankingMichael Chui, Christian Upper
Oct 2017Policy NoteNo 19Is cash back? Assessing the recent increase in cash demandClemens Jobst, Helmut Stix
Oct 2017Policy NoteNo 18Is there a risk of snapback in long-dated yields?Hyun Song Shin
May 2017Policy NoteNo 12(No) worries about the new shape of international capital flowsMatthieu Bussiére, Julia Schmidt, Natacha Valla
Mar 2017Policy NoteNo 11Completing the architecture of the EuroLorenzo Bini Smaghi
Jan 2017Policy NoteNo 10Bail-ins: Issues of Credibility and ContagionClas Wihlborg
Apr 2016Policy NoteNo 5Some seeming paradoxes or interesting points of Russia’s economy and banking sectorStephan Barisitz
Dec 2015Policy NoteNo 3Cash without future? Future without cash? A wider viewChristian Beer, Urs W. Birchler, Ernest Gnan
Sep 2015Policy NoteNo 1What is money and who says so?Peter R. Fisher

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